Standards and guidance: Assets

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Buildings & housing

Standards/Guidance/Tool

Description

Product Type

CSA PLUS 4011.1:19 – Technical Guide: Design and construction considerations for foundations in permafrost regions

This guideline is intended to provide more detailed technical information on the attributes of the various foundation systems, selection criteria, ground conditions, and related issues. Topics covered include the distribution of permafrost in Canada, ground temperatures, ice content, salinity, terrain sensitivity, surface hydrology, and the effects of a changing climate on the performance of building foundations.

Guidance

CSA A440.3:22 User Guide to CSA A440.2:22, Fenestration energy performance

Applies to the determination of energy performance properties for a variety of fenestration systems and includes the following energy performance properties, applicable to all building types (residential, commercial, and other): overall coefficient of heat transfer (U-factor); solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC); and visible transmittance (VT). Annex B provides some information on how climate change can affect fenestration product design and application.

Guidance

Global Building Resilience Guidelines

Fifteen principles developed by the Global Resiliency Dialogue provide a basis for advancing building resilience through building codes. They are intended to help inform the development of building codes and standards that incorporate future-focused climate resilience and respond proportionately to rapidly changing and predicted extreme weather events such as flooding, storms, cyclones/hurricanes, wildfires/bushfires and heatwaves.

Guidance

CSA PLUS 4011:19 - Technical guide: Infrastructure in permafrost: A guideline for climate change adaptation

This updated technical guide provides updates on current climate change projections recommended for use in northern Canada; current trends in climate (temperature and precipitation) throughout the North; a range of climate projections available for northern Canada; Up-to-date information on ground temperature trends in permafrost throughout northern Canada; Permafrost conditions critical for infrastructure foundations.

Guidance

Coastal flood risk assessment guidelines for building and infrastructure design: supporting flood resilience on Canada's coasts

These guidelines apply to coastal flood risk assessments for building and infrastructure design (including retrofit design) applications in Canada. The document is intended to inform, and provide a technical reference for, a wide variety of users interested in building and infrastructure design in areas potentially exposed to coastal flood hazards under present-day and/or future conditions. The guidelines advocate a move toward risk-based approaches to analysis and design for flood resilience.

Guidance

National guide for wildland-Urban-Interface Fires

This guide provides guidance on how to break the WUI fire disaster sequence at various points and is intended to enhance life safety and property protection by reducing the wildfire threat posed by the surrounding environment and by enhancing the fire protection provided by structures. The guideline contents include identifying wildland fire hazards and exposure; measures to mitigate fire risk in the structure ignition zone; community planning and resources; and, emergency planning and outreach.

Guidance

Climate resilience buildings: guideline for management of overheating risk in residential buildings

Overheating is the result of excessive heat accumulation in building interiors combined with limited means to effectively dissipate this heat to the outdoors. The outdoor environment is the principal cause for this excessive heat, particularly during extreme heat events that occur in the summertime. However, buildings can exacerbate the situation by generating additional internal heat from equipment, lighting, occupants (density) and as well, from the trapping of heat given high levels of insulation, more effective airtightness of envelopes and inadequate space ventilation.

Guidance

Practical guidance for private-side drainage systems to reduce basement flood risk: addressing critical information gaps

This guide aims to establish a foundation for developing recommendations on drainage systems, sump pumps, backwater protection, and private-side sewer connections to prevent basement flooding in residential buildings under the National Building Code of Canada (NBC) Part 9. It intends to work alongside CSA Z800-18 to enhance basement flood protection measures for both new and existing structures. The focus is on mitigating flood risk through private-side drainage systems.

Guidance

Guide for design of flood-resistant buildings

Guidance to inform flood-resistant design of buildings, including calculating flood loads and choosing an appropriate design flood. The recommended methods, formulas, and approaches provided by this guideline are considered best practices and those that are more easily applied by practitioners.

Guidance

Guidelines for improving flood-resistance for existing buildings

Guidance for flood resiliency of five common foundation types: basement, crawlspace, slab on grade, piling, and post/column. The guidelines cover common mitigation techniques including wet and dry flood proofing; other mitigation techniques for temporary and permanent flood barriers followed by a discussion of flood resistant materials; and, the flood resistant techniques in this report are directed at retrofitting existing buildings.

Guidance

Technical Guide for Northern Housing

This technical guide outlines best practices through illustrated booklets for building solutions in house construction in northern and remote regions (i.e. the Arctic and subarctic First Nations and Inuit Nunangat regions). Fourteen overview booklets cover the challenges within sub-regions, and eleven technical booklets cover the house design and construction process.

Guidance

CSA Z800-18 - Guideline on Basement Flood Protection

The guideline was prepared to assist relevant stakeholders in the mitigation of basement flood risk for new and existing National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) Part 9 residential buildings.

Guidance

CSA Z240.10.1:19 - Site preparation, foundation, and installation of buildings

This updated standard addresses climate change adaptation with revisions and new provisions which include the following: sources for climate data; protection against effects of flooding; deterioration resistance; and addition of a new Annex A on environmental design data and climate change. The standard specifies requirements for the following aspects of building installation: site preparation; permanent foundations; anchorage to resist overturning and pier toppling due to wind; connection of modules in multiple-section prefabricated buildings; and skirting.

Standard

CSA S502:21 - Managing changing snow load risks for buildings in Canada's North

Informs communities on measures for safe roof snow removal from existing buildings and for protection of building occupants and assets from overloading risks due to increasing accumulations and weights. Procedures that can reduce risks for roof and building collapses are outlined, including procedures for monitoring heavy snow and ice accumulations, safe removal of snow on roofs when needed, and for maintenance and snow removal planning.

Standard

CSA S478-19 - Durability in Buildings

Provides criteria and requirements for the design of a durable building and its building elements and includes provisions for cost analysis and management and for a quality management program for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and renovation of a building and its building elements.

Standard

CSA A440S1-19 - Canadian Supplement to AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440-17, North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for windows, doors, and skylights

Provides simplified methods to calculate the minimum performance levels for resistance to water penetration, wind loads, and snow loads for fenestration products on buildings in Canada. Annex B introduces the issue of climate change and its associated effects on fenestration in buildings. It is anticipated that fenestration designers will need to incorporate changes in climate loads resulting from climate change into the fenestration product design. Annex B provides some information on this topic for consideration by designers.

Standard

CSA A440.2:22 Fenestration energy performance

Applies to the determination of energy performance properties for a variety of fenestration systems and includes the following energy performance properties, applicable to all building types (residential, commercial, and other): overall coefficient of heat transfer (U-factor); solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC); and visible transmittance (VT). Annex B provides some information on how climate change can affect fenestration product design and application.

Standard

CSA A440.4-19 - Window, Door and Skylight Installation

This updated standard introduces a new Annex H which provides some information on how climate change could impact fenestration product design and application.

Standard

CSA A440.6:20 High exposure fenestration installation

This updated standard introduces a new Annex H which provides information on climate change, its potential effects on fenestration in buildings and provides guidance for climate change resilient design for fenestration products and installation.

Standard

CSA A123.26:21 - Performance requirements for climate resilience of low slope membrane roofing systems

Requirements for low slope membrane roofing systems (LSMRS) when identified as silver and gold performance level based on the climate severity and resilience requirements. The National Building Code of Canada and the National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings provide bronze requirements for LSMRS.

Standard

CSA S500:21 Thermosyphon foundations for buildings in permafrost regions

Requirements for all life cycle phases of thermosyphon foundations for new buildings on permafrost, including site characterization, design, installation, and commissioning phases as well as for monitoring and maintenance phases. Ensure the long-term performance of thermosyphon-supported foundation systems under changing environmental conditions.

Standard

CSA S501:21 Moderating the effects of permafrost degradation on existing building foundations

This standard covers strategies to maintain permafrost or mitigate permafrost degradation related to existing buildings or structures, also allows for site abandonment or structure demolition in response to permafrost degradation.

Standard

CSA S505:20 Techniques for considering high winds and snow drifting and their impact on northern infrastructure

This standard addresses risks to northern infrastructure due to wind, snow, and snow drifting. It incorporates weather data, climate variables, and relevant projections and forecasts; reducing risk of damage; climate adaptation strategies.

Standard

BNQ 2501-500 Geotechnical Site Investigations for Building Foundations in Permafrost Zones

This standard establishes a consistent methodology for performing geotechnical site investigations so that the results can be used to design building foundations with due consideration, in a risk management framework, of the considerations prevailing at the building site, including: permafrost characteristics, and the seasonal and interannual climate conditions as well as the projected climate conditions over the service life of the building foundations.

Standard

CSA S520:22 – Design and construction of low-rise residential and small buildings to resist high wind

The standard is aimed at improving the wind resistance of buildings designed according to part 9 of the National Building Code of Canada.

Standard

Climate-RCI

Tool for determining climate severity and roof performance requirements, referenced by CSA A123.26:21 - Performance requirements for climate resilience of low slope membrane roofing systems

Tool

Hygrothermal database of building materials (HygDbM)

This project examined 34 common building materials in Canada under current and projected future climates, assessing 5 key hygrothermal properties essential for modeling. The materials were categorized into insulation types, wood, masonry, and finishes. Properties tested included thermal conductivity, moisture storage, water absorption, vapor permeability, and air permeability.

Tool

Community

Standards/Guidance/Tool

Description

Product Type

CSA W204-19 Flood Resilient Design for New Residential Communities

This standard provides compliance criteria and guidance on the design of flood-resilient new residential communities as it relates to greenfield development only. This standard does not cover flood resilience considerations as they relate to existing development, infill, intensification, or redevelopment. Its application could be insufficient in areas with permafrost, and in areas subject to coastal and lake flooding.

Standard

CSA W210:21 Prioritizing flood resiliency in existing
residential communities

This standard supports resource allocation decisions regarding flood risk-reduction at the community level, for existing communities. The principles include consideration of flood mechanisms present and interdependency between flood mechanisms in establishing flood risks; the consideration of flood-exacerbating factors such as climate change (future frequency and severity of precipitation), urban intensification, and changes in upstream land uses that affect long-term resilience.

Standard

National guide for wildland-Urban-Interface Fires

This guide provides guidance on how to break the WUI fire disaster sequence at various points and is intended to enhance life safety and property protection by reducing the wildfire threat posed by the surrounding environment and by enhancing the fire protection provided by structures. The guideline contents include identifying wildland fire hazards and exposure; measures to mitigate fire risk in the structure ignition zone; community planning and resources; and, emergency planning and outreach.

Guidance

Water/wastewater/stormwater

Standards/Guidance/Tool

Description

Product Type

CSA PLUS 4013-19 - Technical Guide: Development, Interpretation and Use of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Information: Guideline for Canadian Water Resources Practitioners

This guide is designed for professionals working with stormwater, drainage, wastewater, and flood management systems. It offers insights into using rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) data for water system planning. The guide was updated in 2018 by the Canadian Standards Association to include the latest scientific understanding of climate change and its integration into IDF information.

Guidance

CSA W204-19 - Flood Resilient Design for New Residential Communities

This standard provides compliance criteria and guidance on the design of flood-resilient new residential communities as it relates to greenfield development only. This standard does not cover flood resilience considerations as they relate to existing development, infill, intensification, or redevelopment. Its application could be insufficient in areas with permafrost, and in areas subject to coastal and lake flooding.

Standard

CSA W203:19 - Planning, design, operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment in northern communities using lagoon and wetland systems

This standard focuses on the planning, design, operation, and maintenance of intermittent/seasonal discharge lagoon and wetland systems designed for northern regions (above the 54th parallel), where effluent discharge is challenging during colder months. It can also be applied to communities facing similar challenges due to extreme climatic conditions and remoteness. However, the standard does not cover mechanical aeration of lagoon systems, natural lakes, and exfiltration lagoons.

Standard

Water distribution systems: climate change risks and opportunities

Provides an overview of the impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on water consumption and the ensuing implications for hydraulic capacity; the impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on energy consumption in water distribution system operation; the impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation and freeze/thaw cycles on water main breaks; and, the impacts of temperature changes on water quality (through tracking of chlorine residuals).

Report

Guidelines on undertaking a comprehensive analysis of benefits, costs and uncertainties of storm drainage and flood control infrastructure in a changing climate

Guidelines for the assessment of the value of storm drainage and flood control infrastructure including grey, green and hybrid systems. Guidance is intended to inform the assessment of infrastructure investment options, including considerations of uncertainties associated with a changing climate.

Guidance

CSA W200-18 - Design of bioretention systems.

This standard provides requirements and recommendations for the design of bioretention systems intended for the management of urban stormwater runoff. Bioretention systems covered by this standard: bioretention with underdrain and with no underdrain; biofilters (impermeable liner); and bioretention planters and bioretention bump-outs (curb extensions).

Standard

CSA W201-18 Construction of bioretention systems

This standard covers the construction considerations for bioretention systems intended for the management of urban stormwater runoff.

Standard

CSA S503:20 - Community drainage system planning, design, and maintenance in northern communities

Specifies the minimum planning, design, and maintenance requirements for community drainage systems in Canada's northern communities to increase the capacity of communities and individuals to prepare and implement effective community drainage plans. Addresses both existing and anticipated drainage management challenges arising from deficiencies in past practices, as well as the need to adapt to future changes in climate.

Standard

CSA W204-19 - Flood Resilient Design for New Residential Communities

This standard provides compliance criteria and guidance on the design of flood- resilient new residential communities as it relates to greenfield development only. This standard does not cover flood resilience considerations as they relate to existing development, infill, intensification, or redevelopment. Its application could be insufficient in areas with permafrost, and in areas subject to coastal and lake flooding.

Standard

Bridges

Standards/Guidance/Tool

Description

Product Type

CSA S6:19 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

Section 2 (Durability and sustainability) specifies requirements for durability and sustainability that need to be considered during the design process of bridges, culverts, and other structures located in transportation corridors. Local climate change and exposure conditions are brought to the attention of designers and owners.

Standard

CSA S7 - Design of pedestrian, cycling and multi-use bridges

New guidelines for the design of pedestrian, cycling and multi-use bridges. Incorporates considerations of sustainability and climate resilience, and includes design based on future climatic design data.

Standard

Roads

Standards/Guidance/Tool

Description

Product Type

Climate Change and Asphalt Binder Selection: Resilient Roads of the Future

Adapting Canadian pavements to climate change poses challenges due to increasing temperatures and extreme heat events. Research focuses on selecting suitable asphalt for pavement, considering climate change impacts in various Canadian cities. Projected temperatures drive this evaluation, underscoring the urgency of climate adaptation policies in the country.

Conference Paper

Climate Change Challenges for Flexible Pavement in Canada: An Overview

Resilient flexible roads should be designed to withstand the conditions that are likely to occur during their design life, taking into account the impact of the climate change on pavement performance in response to daily and seasonal changes in heat, precipitation, freeze–thaw cycles, and extreme weather events.

Journal Paper

Investigation of climate change impacts on early-age cracking of jointed plain concrete pavements in Canada

This study examines how jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) responds to environmental conditions, using software and models to identify cracking potential. A sensitivity analysis considers factors like temperature and wind speed, while projected extreme temperatures from CanRCM highlight increased cracking risks due to climate change in Canadian cities. The findings underscore the urgency of developing adaptation strategies.

Journal Paper

Climate change and asphalt binder selection across Ontario: A quantitative analysis towards the end of the century

This study investigates Superpave Mix design and Performance Grade (PG) selection for asphalt binders considering historical and projected climatic conditions. The research develops regression models to predict pavement surface temperatures and uses them to assess future climate scenarios. The findings suggest changing asphalt binder grades across Ontario due to warming temperatures, providing actionable recommendations for adapting paving materials to changing conditions.

Journal Paper